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Substance Name: Paraquat dichloride [ISO]
RN: 1910-42-5
UNII: 2KZ83GSS73
InChIKey: FIKAKWIAUPDISJ-UHFFFAOYSA-L

Note

  • A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.

Molecular Formula

  • C12-H14-N2.2Cl

Molecular Weight

  • 257.163
 

Classification Codes

Classification Codes

  • Agricultural Chemical
  • Drug / Therapeutic Agent
  • Herbicide
  • Human Data
  • Mutation Data
  • Reproductive Effect
  • Skin / Eye Irritant

Superlist Classification Codes

  • Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ) = 10/10000 lb
  • TWA 0.1 mg/m3; skin

Names and Synonyms

Results Name

  • Paraquat dichloride [ISO]

Name of Substance

  • Paraquat dichloride

Synonyms

  • 1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride
  • 1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridynium dichloride
  • 1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridinium-dichlorid
  • 1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridinium-dichlorid [German]
  • 1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridylium dichloride
  • 1,1-Dimethyl-4,4-dipyridilium dichloride
  • 4,4'-Dimethyldipyridyl dichloride
  • AH 501
  • AI3-61943
  • Bipyridinium, 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-, dichloride
  • Caswell No. 634
  • CCRIS 9018
  • Cekuquat
  • Crisquat
  • Dexuron
  • Dimethyl viologen chloride
  • Dwuchlorek 1,1'-dwumetylo-4,4'-dwupirydyniowy
  • Dwuchlorek 1,1'-dwumetylo-4,4'-dwupirydyniowy [Polish]
  • EINECS 217-615-7
  • EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 061601
  • Esgram
  • Galokson
  • Goldquat 276
  • Gramixel
  • Gramoxone
  • Gramoxone D
  • Gramoxone dichloride
  • Gramoxone S
  • Gramoxone W
  • Gramuron
  • Herbaxon
  • Herboxone
  • Methyl viologen
  • Methyl viologen (reduced)
  • Methyl viologen dichloride
  • Methylviologen chloride
  • N,N'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride
  • N,N'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium dichloride
  • N,N'-Dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridylium dichloride
  • NSC 263500
  • NSC 88126
  • OK 622
  • Ortho paraquat CL
  • Parakwat
  • Parakwat [Polish]
  • Paraquat CL
  • Paraquat dichloride
  • Paraquat, dichloride
  • Pathclear
  • Pillarquat
  • Pillarxone
  • Toxer total
  • UNII-2KZ83GSS73
  • Viologen, methyl-

Systematic Names

  • 4,4'-Bipyridinium, 1,1'-dimethyl-, dichloride
  • Paraquat-dichloride

Superlist Names

  • 4,4'-Bipyridinium, 1,1'-dimethyl-, dichloride
  • Paraquat
  • Paraquat dichloride

Registry Numbers

CAS Registry Number

  • 1910-42-5

FDA UNII

  • 2KZ83GSS73

Other Registry Numbers

  • 136338-65-3
  • 205105-68-6
  • 247050-57-3
  • 3765-78-4
  • 57593-74-5
  • 65982-50-5

System Generated Number

  • 0001910425

Molecular Formulas

Molecular Formula

  • C12-H14-N2.2Cl

Molecular Formula Fragments

  • C12-H14-N2
  • Cl
  • COMPONENT

Structure Descriptors

InChI

1S/C12H14N2.2ClH/c1-13-7-3-11(4-8-13)12-5-9-14(2)10-6-12;;/h3-10H,1-2H3;2*1H/q+2;;/p-2

InChIKey

FIKAKWIAUPDISJ-UHFFFAOYSA-L

Smiles

c1(c2cc[n+](C)cc2)cc[n+](C)cc1.[ClH-].[ClH-]

Toxicity

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LD50 oral 35mg/kg (35mg/kg)   Iyakuhin Kenkyu. Study of Medical Supplies. Vol. 10, Pg. 520, 1979.
chicken LD50 oral 262mg/kg (262mg/kg)   British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 23, Pg. 126, 1966.
child TDLo oral 30uL/kg (0.03mL/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING

BLOOD: "CHANGES IN SERUM COMPOSITION (E.G., TP, BILIRUBIN, CHOLESTEROL)"
Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 34, Pg. 164, 1992.
dog LC inhalation > 4mg/m3/3.4H (4mg/m3)   British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 25, Pg. 304, 1968.
dog LD50 oral 25mg/kg (25mg/kg)   Iyakuhin Kenkyu. Study of Medical Supplies. Vol. 10, Pg. 520, 1979.
dog LDLo intravenous 34500ug/kg (34.5mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 2, Pg. 261, 1982.
domestic animals - goat/sheep LD50 intravenous 1mg/kg (1mg/kg)   Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 19, Pg. 911, 1983.
domestic animals - goat/sheep LD50 oral 30mg/kg (30mg/kg)   "Pflanzenschutz-und Schaedlingsbekaempfungsmittel: Abriss einer Toxikologie und Therapie von Vergiftungen," 2nd ed., Klimmer, O.R., Hattingen, Fed. Rep. Ger., Hundt-Verlag, 1971Vol. -, Pg. 104, 1971.
duck LD50 oral 199mg/kg (199mg/kg)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 47, Pg. 451, 1979.
duck LD50 skin 600mg/kg (600mg/kg)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 47, Pg. 451, 1979.
frog LD50 parenteral 260mg/kg (260mg/kg)   Acta Biologica Hungarica. Vol. 36, Pg. 295, 1985.
guinea pig LCLo inhalation 2200ug/m3/2.5 (2.2mg/m3)   British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 25, Pg. 304, 1968.
guinea pig LD50 intraperitoneal 3mg/kg (3mg/kg)   British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 23, Pg. 126, 1966.
guinea pig LD50 oral 22mg/kg (22mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Vol. 17, Pg. 317, 1972.
human LDLo oral 214mg/kg (214mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA
Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. Vol. 30, Pg. 985, 1979.
man LDLo oral 857ug/kg (0.857mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: URINE VOLUME DECREASED

LIVER: "JAUNDICE, OTHER OR UNCLASSIFIED"
Nippon Byori Gakkai Kaishi. Journal of the Japanese Pathological Society. Vol. 70, Pg. 118, 1981.
man LDLo oral 3380uL/kg (3.38mL/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: "FIBROSIS, FOCAL (PNEUMOCONIOSIS)"

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: SPUTUM

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 6, Pg. 509, 1988.
man LDLo oral 43mg/kg (43mg/kg) KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: URINE VOLUME DECREASED

LIVER: OTHER CHANGES

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: CHANGES IN BOTH TUBULES AND GLOMERULI
British Medical Journal. Vol. 2, Pg. 396, 1978.
man LDLo oral 1720mg/kg (1720mg/kg) LIVER: LIVER FUNCTION TESTS IMPAIRED

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)"

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA
Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 18, Pg. 915, 1981.
man LDLo parenteral 57uL/kg (0.057mL/kg) LIVER: "HEPATITIS (HEPATOCELLULAR NECROSIS), DIFFUSE"

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: OTHER CHANGES

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: "FIBROSIS, FOCAL (PNEUMOCONIOSIS)"
Forensic Science International. Vol. 49, Pg. 215, 1991.
man LDLo subcutaneous 3uL/kg (0.003mL/kg) LIVER: "JAUNDICE, OTHER OR UNCLASSIFIED"

BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: OTHER (DIRECT) PARASYMPATHOMIMETIC
British Medical Journal. Vol. 3, Pg. 721, 1967.
man TDLo oral 57ug/kg (0.057mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES
British Journal of Clinical Practice. Vol. 30, Pg. 71, 1976.
man TDLo oral 32mg/kg (32mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES
British Medical Journal. Vol. 3, Pg. 290, 1968.
monkey LD50 oral 50mg/kg (50mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: EMPHYSEMA

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)"
Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Vol. 17, Pg. 317, 1972.
mouse LC inhalation > 2200ug/m3/2. (2.2mg/m3)   British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 25, Pg. 304, 1968.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 20mg/kg (20mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Pathology. Vol. 128, Pg. 21, 1979.
mouse LD50 intravenous 180mg/kg (180mg/kg)   U.S. Army Armament Research & Development Command, Chemical Systems Laboratory, NIOSH Exchange Chemicals. Vol. NX#00224,
mouse LD50 oral 120mg/kg (120mg/kg)   General Pharmacology. Vol. 12, Pg. 225, 1981.
mouse LD50 oral 120mg/kg (120mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: FIBROSIS (INTERSTITIAL) General Pharmacology. Vol. 12, Pg. 225, 1981.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 37mg/kg (37mg/kg)   Nippon Noyaku Gakkaishi. Journal of the Pesticide Science Society of Japan. Vol. 13, Pg. 157, 1988.
pig LD50 oral 30mg/kg (30mg/kg)   "Pflanzenschutz-und Schaedlingsbekaempfungsmittel: Abriss einer Toxikologie und Therapie von Vergiftungen," 2nd ed., Klimmer, O.R., Hattingen, Fed. Rep. Ger., Hundt-Verlag, 1971Vol. -, Pg. 104, 1971.
rabbit LC inhalation > 2200ug/m3/2. (2.2mg/m3)   British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 25, Pg. 304, 1968.
rabbit LD50 intraperitoneal 18mg/kg (18mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT

BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)
Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 21, Pg. 404, 1979.
rabbit LD50 skin 325mg/kg (325mg/kg) SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): CUTANEOUS SENSITIZATION (EXPERIMENTAL): AFTER TOPICAL EXPOSURE British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 23, Pg. 126, 1966.
rabbit LDLo ocular 100mg/kg (100mg/kg)   Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 9, Pg. 163, 1973.
rabbit LDLo oral 69030ug/kg (69.03mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: FOOD INTAKE (ANIMAL) Ain Shams Medical Journal. Vol. 23, Pg. 599, 1972.
rat LC50 inhalation 1mg/m3/6H (1mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 25, Pg. 304, 1968.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 19mg/kg (19mg/kg) BRAIN AND COVERINGS: RECORDINGS FROM SPECIFIC AREAS OF CNS

BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION
British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 23, Pg. 126, 1966.
rat LD50 intravenous 21mg/kg (21mg/kg) SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER

GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 22, Pg. 241, 1972.
rat LD50 oral 57mg/kg (57mg/kg)   Residue Reviews. Vol. 10, Pg. 97, 1965.
rat LD50 skin 80mg/kg (80mg/kg)   World Review of Pest Control. Vol. 9, Pg. 119, 1970.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 27mg/kg (27mg/kg)   Nippon Noyaku Gakkaishi. Journal of the Pesticide Science Society of Japan. Vol. 13, Pg. 157, 1988.
turkey LD50 skin 375mg/kg (375mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA" Poultry Science. Vol. 52, Pg. 1625, 1973.
turkey LDLo intraperitoneal 20mg/kg (20mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA" Poultry Science. Vol. 52, Pg. 1625, 1973.
turkey LDLo intravenous 12500ug/kg (12.5mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA" Poultry Science. Vol. 52, Pg. 1625, 1973.
turkey LDLo oral 250mg/kg (250mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA" Poultry Science. Vol. 52, Pg. 1625, 1973.
women LDLo multiple routes 12200ug/kg/30 (12.2mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: "FIBROSIS, FOCAL (PNEUMOCONIOSIS)"

BLOOD: CHANGES IN CELL COUNT (UNSPECIFIED)
Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. Vol. 50, Pg. 481, 1977.
women LDLo oral 111mg/kg (111mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)"

GASTROINTESTINAL: ULCERATION OR BLEEDING FROM STOMACH
Archives of Internal Medicine. Vol. 146, Pg. 681, 1986.
women LDLo oral 3gm/kg (3000mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: COUGH

BEHAVIORAL: HEADACHE

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Fukushima Igaku Zasshi. Vol. 27, Pg. 494, 1977.

Physical Properties

Physical Property Value Units Temp (deg C) Source
log P (octanol-water) -2.710 (none)   EST
Water Solubility 7.00E+05 mg/L 20 EXP
Atmospheric OH Rate Constant 2.12E-11 cm3/molecule-sec 25 EST

Physical property data is provided to ChemIDplus by SRC, Inc.